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from the 16th to the 19th centuries
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Cartographer: 'Gillray, James.'
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Caricature of Pitt's new Banknotes.
James Gillray.

London, H.G.Bohn, 1851. Because of the need for gold for foreign trade during the war with the French, William Pitt the younger pressured the Bank of England into temporarily suspending its practice of honouring banknotes with gold. The Bank then issued £1 & £2 notes for the first time. Here Sheridan, Fox and Stanhope, dressed as French revolutionaries, try to persuade John Bull to refuse to accept them. First published 1797.

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Satire on Fashion
James Gillray.

London, H.G.Bohn, 1851. Cheapside copying St James's. First published 1794.

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Satire on War Loans to Austria
James Gillray.

London, H.G.Bohn, 1851. In 1795 the British Government loaned money to Austria to help pay for the French Revolutionary War. Here John Bull is shown being abused by both friend and foe. The Austrian emperor picks his pocket; a Prussian Death's Head Hussar waves another bag of cash; a Dutchman blows pipe-smoke in Bull's face while a sans-coulotte kicks his backside. The final indignity is the British Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger, shouting encouragement to the tormentors while rifling the pockets of Bull's jacket.

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Satire on Lord Howe
James Gillray.

London, H.G.Bohn, 1851. Admiral Howe was much criticised for staying in Torbay instead of blockading the French at Brest. Here Gillray suggests that French money was responsible. Six months later the 'Glorious First of June' sea battle restored Howe's reputation. First published 1793.

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Satire on Admiral Howe
James Gillray.

London, H.G.Bohn, 1851. Admiral Howe, known as Black Dick because of his swarthy complexion, was First Lord of the Admiralty 1783-88. Budgetary constraints hampered him, so he is satirised here for his reform of naval uniform rather than more urgent problems First published 1803.